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Egypt

Many translated example sentences containing "in Egypt" – English-German dictionary and search engine for English translations. Die Egypt war ein in Dienst gestelltes Passagierschiff der britischen Reederei Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company (P&O), das Passagiere. Wenn Sie unsere Website besuchen, so kann diese Informationen aus Ihrem Browser, meist in Form von Cookies, abrufen oder speichern. Hierbei kann es sich.

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Hieroglyphic writing dates from c. A hieroglyph can represent a word, a sound, or a silent determinative; and the same symbol can serve different purposes in different contexts.

Hieroglyphs were a formal script, used on stone monuments and in tombs, that could be as detailed as individual works of art.

In day-to-day writing, scribes used a cursive form of writing, called hieratic , which was quicker and easier. While formal hieroglyphs may be read in rows or columns in either direction though typically written from right to left , hieratic was always written from right to left, usually in horizontal rows.

A new form of writing, Demotic , became the prevalent writing style, and it is this form of writing—along with formal hieroglyphs—that accompany the Greek text on the Rosetta Stone.

Around the first century AD, the Coptic alphabet started to be used alongside the Demotic script. Coptic is a modified Greek alphabet with the addition of some Demotic signs.

As the traditional religious establishments were disbanded, knowledge of hieroglyphic writing was mostly lost. Writing first appeared in association with kingship on labels and tags for items found in royal tombs.

It was primarily an occupation of the scribes, who worked out of the Per Ankh institution or the House of Life. The latter comprised offices, libraries called House of Books , laboratories and observatories.

Late Egyptian was spoken from the New Kingdom onward and is represented in Ramesside administrative documents, love poetry and tales, as well as in Demotic and Coptic texts.

During this period, the tradition of writing had evolved into the tomb autobiography, such as those of Harkhuf and Weni.

The genre known as Sebayt "instructions" was developed to communicate teachings and guidance from famous nobles; the Ipuwer papyrus , a poem of lamentations describing natural disasters and social upheaval, is a famous example.

The former tells the story of a noble who is robbed on his way to buy cedar from Lebanon and of his struggle to return to Egypt. Many stories written in demotic during the Greco-Roman period were set in previous historical eras, when Egypt was an independent nation ruled by great pharaohs such as Ramesses II.

Most ancient Egyptians were farmers tied to the land. Their dwellings were restricted to immediate family members, and were constructed of mud-brick designed to remain cool in the heat of the day.

Each home had a kitchen with an open roof, which contained a grindstone for milling grain and a small oven for baking the bread.

Floors were covered with reed mats, while wooden stools, beds raised from the floor and individual tables comprised the furniture.

The ancient Egyptians placed a great value on hygiene and appearance. Most bathed in the Nile and used a pasty soap made from animal fat and chalk.

Men shaved their entire bodies for cleanliness; perfumes and aromatic ointments covered bad odors and soothed skin.

Children went without clothing until maturity, at about age 12, and at this age males were circumcised and had their heads shaved. Mothers were responsible for taking care of the children, while the father provided the family's income.

Music and dance were popular entertainments for those who could afford them. Early instruments included flutes and harps, while instruments similar to trumpets, oboes, and pipes developed later and became popular.

In the New Kingdom, the Egyptians played on bells, cymbals, tambourines, drums, and imported lutes and lyres from Asia.

The ancient Egyptians enjoyed a variety of leisure activities, including games and music. Senet , a board game where pieces moved according to random chance, was particularly popular from the earliest times; another similar game was mehen , which had a circular gaming board.

The first complete set of this game was discovered from a Theban tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Amenemhat IV that dates to the 13th Dynasty.

The excavation of the workers' village of Deir el-Medina has resulted in one of the most thoroughly documented accounts of community life in the ancient world, which spans almost four hundred years.

There is no comparable site in which the organization, social interactions, and working and living conditions of a community have been studied in such detail.

Egyptian cuisine remained remarkably stable over time; indeed, the cuisine of modern Egypt retains some striking similarities to the cuisine of the ancients.

The staple diet consisted of bread and beer, supplemented with vegetables such as onions and garlic, and fruit such as dates and figs.

Wine and meat were enjoyed by all on feast days while the upper classes indulged on a more regular basis. Fish, meat, and fowl could be salted or dried, and could be cooked in stews or roasted on a grill.

The architecture of ancient Egypt includes some of the most famous structures in the world: the Great Pyramids of Giza and the temples at Thebes.

Building projects were organized and funded by the state for religious and commemorative purposes, but also to reinforce the wide-ranging power of the pharaoh.

The ancient Egyptians were skilled builders; using only simple but effective tools and sighting instruments, architects could build large stone structures with great accuracy and precision that is still envied today.

The domestic dwellings of elite and ordinary Egyptians alike were constructed from perishable materials such as mud bricks and wood, and have not survived.

Peasants lived in simple homes, while the palaces of the elite and the pharaoh were more elaborate structures. A few surviving New Kingdom palaces, such as those in Malkata and Amarna , show richly decorated walls and floors with scenes of people, birds, water pools, deities and geometric designs.

The architectural elements used in the world's first large-scale stone building, Djoser 's mortuary complex, include post and lintel supports in the papyrus and lotus motif.

The earliest preserved ancient Egyptian temples , such as those at Giza, consist of single, enclosed halls with roof slabs supported by columns.

In the New Kingdom, architects added the pylon , the open courtyard , and the enclosed hypostyle hall to the front of the temple's sanctuary, a style that was standard until the Greco-Roman period.

The step pyramid of Djoser is a series of stone mastabas stacked on top of each other. Pyramids were built during the Old and Middle Kingdoms, but most later rulers abandoned them in favor of less conspicuous rock-cut tombs.

The three main pyramids at Giza, together with subsidiary pyramids and the remains of other structures at the Giza pyramid complex.

The Temple of Dendur , completed by 10 BC, made of aeolian sandstone, temple proper: height: 6. The well preserved The Temple of Isis from Philae Egypt is an example of Egyptian architecture and architectural sculpture.

Illustration of various types of capitals, drawn by the egyptologist Karl Richard Lepsius. The ancient Egyptians produced art to serve functional purposes.

For over years, artists adhered to artistic forms and iconography that were developed during the Old Kingdom, following a strict set of principles that resisted foreign influence and internal change.

Images and text were intimately interwoven on tomb and temple walls, coffins, stelae, and even statues.

The Narmer Palette , for example, displays figures that can also be read as hieroglyphs. Ancient Egyptian artisans used stone as a medium for carving statues and fine reliefs, but used wood as a cheap and easily carved substitute.

Paints were obtained from minerals such as iron ores red and yellow ochres , copper ores blue and green , soot or charcoal black , and limestone white.

Paints could be mixed with gum arabic as a binder and pressed into cakes, which could be moistened with water when needed.

Pharaohs used reliefs to record victories in battle, royal decrees, and religious scenes. Common citizens had access to pieces of funerary art , such as shabti statues and books of the dead, which they believed would protect them in the afterlife.

In an attempt to duplicate the activities of the living in the afterlife, these models show laborers, houses, boats, and even military formations that are scale representations of the ideal ancient Egyptian afterlife.

Despite the homogeneity of ancient Egyptian art, the styles of particular times and places sometimes reflected changing cultural or political attitudes.

Kneeling portrait statue of Amenemhat holding a stele with an inscription; circa BC; limestone; Egyptian Museum of Berlin Germany.

The Mask of Tutankhamun ; c. Beliefs in the divine and in the afterlife were ingrained in ancient Egyptian civilization from its inception; pharaonic rule was based on the divine right of kings.

The Egyptian pantheon was populated by gods who had supernatural powers and were called on for help or protection. However, the gods were not always viewed as benevolent, and Egyptians believed they had to be appeased with offerings and prayers.

The structure of this pantheon changed continually as new deities were promoted in the hierarchy, but priests made no effort to organize the diverse and sometimes conflicting myths and stories into a coherent system.

Gods were worshiped in cult temples administered by priests acting on the king's behalf. At the center of the temple was the cult statue in a shrine.

Temples were not places of public worship or congregation, and only on select feast days and celebrations was a shrine carrying the statue of the god brought out for public worship.

Normally, the god's domain was sealed off from the outside world and was only accessible to temple officials.

Common citizens could worship private statues in their homes, and amulets offered protection against the forces of chaos.

As a result, priests developed a system of oracles to communicate the will of the gods directly to the people. The Egyptians believed that every human being was composed of physical and spiritual parts or aspects.

After death, the spiritual aspects were released from the body and could move at will, but they required the physical remains or a substitute, such as a statue as a permanent home.

The ultimate goal of the deceased was to rejoin his ka and ba and become one of the "blessed dead", living on as an akh , or "effective one".

For this to happen, the deceased had to be judged worthy in a trial, in which the heart was weighed against a " feather of truth.

The ancient Egyptians maintained an elaborate set of burial customs that they believed were necessary to ensure immortality after death.

These customs involved preserving the body by mummification , performing burial ceremonies, and interring with the body goods the deceased would use in the afterlife.

The arid, desert conditions were a boon throughout the history of ancient Egypt for burials of the poor, who could not afford the elaborate burial preparations available to the elite.

Wealthier Egyptians began to bury their dead in stone tombs and use artificial mummification, which involved removing the internal organs , wrapping the body in linen, and burying it in a rectangular stone sarcophagus or wooden coffin.

Beginning in the Fourth Dynasty, some parts were preserved separately in canopic jars. By the New Kingdom, the ancient Egyptians had perfected the art of mummification; the best technique took 70 days and involved removing the internal organs, removing the brain through the nose, and desiccating the body in a mixture of salts called natron.

The body was then wrapped in linen with protective amulets inserted between layers and placed in a decorated anthropoid coffin.

Mummies of the Late Period were also placed in painted cartonnage mummy cases. Actual preservation practices declined during the Ptolemaic and Roman eras, while greater emphasis was placed on the outer appearance of the mummy, which was decorated.

Wealthy Egyptians were buried with larger quantities of luxury items, but all burials, regardless of social status, included goods for the deceased.

Funerary texts were often included in the grave, and, beginning in the New Kingdom, so were shabti statues that were believed to perform manual labor for them in the afterlife.

After burial, living relatives were expected to occasionally bring food to the tomb and recite prayers on behalf of the deceased.

The ancient Egyptian military was responsible for defending Egypt against foreign invasion, and for maintaining Egypt's domination in the ancient Near East.

The military protected mining expeditions to the Sinai during the Old Kingdom and fought civil wars during the First and Second Intermediate Periods.

The military was responsible for maintaining fortifications along important trade routes, such as those found at the city of Buhen on the way to Nubia.

Forts also were constructed to serve as military bases, such as the fortress at Sile, which was a base of operations for expeditions to the Levant.

In the New Kingdom, a series of pharaohs used the standing Egyptian army to attack and conquer Kush and parts of the Levant. Typical military equipment included bows and arrows , spears, and round-topped shields made by stretching animal skin over a wooden frame.

In the New Kingdom, the military began using chariots that had earlier been introduced by the Hyksos invaders. Weapons and armor continued to improve after the adoption of bronze: shields were now made from solid wood with a bronze buckle, spears were tipped with a bronze point, and the Khopesh was adopted from Asiatic soldiers.

In technology, medicine, and mathematics, ancient Egypt achieved a relatively high standard of productivity and sophistication.

Traditional empiricism , as evidenced by the Edwin Smith and Ebers papyri c. The Egyptians created their own alphabet and decimal system.

Even before the Old Kingdom, the ancient Egyptians had developed a glassy material known as faience , which they treated as a type of artificial semi-precious stone.

Faience is a non-clay ceramic made of silica , small amounts of lime and soda , and a colorant, typically copper.

Several methods can be used to create faience, but typically production involved application of the powdered materials in the form of a paste over a clay core, which was then fired.

By a related technique, the ancient Egyptians produced a pigment known as Egyptian Blue , also called blue frit, which is produced by fusing or sintering silica, copper, lime, and an alkali such as natron.

The product can be ground up and used as a pigment. The ancient Egyptians could fabricate a wide variety of objects from glass with great skill, but it is not clear whether they developed the process independently.

However, they did have technical expertise in making objects, as well as adding trace elements to control the color of the finished glass.

A range of colors could be produced, including yellow, red, green, blue, purple, and white, and the glass could be made either transparent or opaque.

The medical problems of the ancient Egyptians stemmed directly from their environment. Living and working close to the Nile brought hazards from malaria and debilitating schistosomiasis parasites, which caused liver and intestinal damage.

Dangerous wildlife such as crocodiles and hippos were also a common threat. The lifelong labors of farming and building put stress on the spine and joints, and traumatic injuries from construction and warfare all took a significant toll on the body.

The grit and sand from stone-ground flour abraded teeth, leaving them susceptible to abscesses though caries were rare. The diets of the wealthy were rich in sugars, which promoted periodontal disease.

Ancient Egyptian physicians were renowned in the ancient Near East for their healing skills, and some, such as Imhotep , remained famous long after their deaths.

Medical papyri show empirical knowledge of anatomy, injuries, and practical treatments. Wounds were treated by bandaging with raw meat, white linen, sutures, nets, pads, and swabs soaked with honey to prevent infection, [] while opium , thyme , and belladona were used to relieve pain.

The earliest records of burn treatment describe burn dressings that use the milk from mothers of male babies.

Prayers were made to the goddess Isis. Moldy bread, honey, and copper salts were also used to prevent infection from dirt in burns.

Ancient Egyptian surgeons stitched wounds, set broken bones , and amputated diseased limbs, but they recognized that some injuries were so serious that they could only make the patient comfortable until death occurred.

The Archaeological Institute of America reports that the oldest planked ships known are the Abydos boats. Discovered by Egyptologist David O'Connor of New York University , [] woven straps were found to have been used to lash the planks together, [5] and reeds or grass stuffed between the planks helped to seal the seams.

Early Egyptians also knew how to assemble planks of wood with treenails to fasten them together, using pitch for caulking the seams.

The " Khufu ship ", a Early Egyptians also knew how to fasten the planks of this ship together with mortise and tenon joints. Large seagoing ships are known to have been heavily used by the Egyptians in their trade with the city states of the eastern Mediterranean, especially Byblos on the coast of modern-day Lebanon , and in several expeditions down the Red Sea to the Land of Punt.

In archaeologists from Italy, the United States, and Egypt excavating a dried-up lagoon known as Mersa Gawasis have unearthed traces of an ancient harbor that once launched early voyages like Hatshepsut 's Punt expedition onto the open ocean.

In , an ancient north—south canal dating to the Middle Kingdom of Egypt was discovered extending from Lake Timsah to the Ballah Lakes.

The earliest attested examples of mathematical calculations date to the predynastic Naqada period, and show a fully developed numeral system.

They understood basic concepts of algebra and geometry , and could solve simple sets of simultaneous equations.

Mathematical notation was decimal, and based on hieroglyphic signs for each power of ten up to one million. Each of these could be written as many times as necessary to add up to the desired number; so to write the number eighty or eight hundred, the symbol for ten or one hundred was written eight times respectively.

Standard tables of values facilitated this. Ancient Egyptian mathematicians knew the Pythagorean theorem as an empirical formula.

They were aware, for example, that a triangle had a right angle opposite the hypotenuse when its sides were in a 3—4—5 ratio.

The golden ratio seems to be reflected in many Egyptian constructions, including the pyramids , but its use may have been an unintended consequence of the ancient Egyptian practice of combining the use of knotted ropes with an intuitive sense of proportion and harmony.

A team led by Johannes Krause managed the first reliable sequencing of the genomes of 90 mummified individuals in from northern Egypt buried near modern-day Cairo , which constituted "the first reliable data set obtained from ancient Egyptians using high-throughput DNA sequencing methods.

What's more, the genetics of the mummies remained remarkably consistent even as different powers—including Nubians, Greeks, and Romans—conquered the empire.

Other genetic studies show much greater levels of sub-Saharan African ancestry in the current-day populations of southern as opposed to northern Egypt, [] and anticipate that mummies from southern Egypt would contain greater levels of sub-Saharan African ancestry than Lower Egyptian mummies.

The culture and monuments of ancient Egypt have left a lasting legacy on the world. The cult of the goddess Isis , for example, became popular in the Roman Empire , as obelisks and other relics were transported back to Rome.

Early historians such as Herodotus , Strabo , and Diodorus Siculus studied and wrote about the land, which Romans came to view as a place of mystery.

During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance , Egyptian pagan culture was in decline after the rise of Christianity and later Islam , but interest in Egyptian antiquity continued in the writings of medieval scholars such as Dhul-Nun al-Misri and al-Maqrizi.

This renewed interest sent collectors to Egypt, who took, purchased, or were given many important antiquities.

Although the European colonial occupation of Egypt destroyed a significant portion of the country's historical legacy, some foreigners left more positive marks.

In the 20th century, the Egyptian Government and archaeologists alike recognized the importance of cultural respect and integrity in excavations.

The Supreme Council of Antiquities now approves and oversees all excavations, which are aimed at finding information rather than treasure.

The council also supervises museums and monument reconstruction programs designed to preserve the historical legacy of Egypt.

Tourists at the pyramid complex of Khafre near the Great Sphinx of Giza. Ancient Egypt portal. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For the British history magazine, see Ancient Egypt magazine. For the language, see Egyptian language. Civilization of ancient North Africa in the place that is now the country Egypt.

All years are BC. First Dynasty I c. Old Kingdom. First Intermediate. Middle Kingdom. Second Intermediate. New Kingdom.

Third Intermediate. Late Period. Thirty-first Dynasty 2nd Persian Period. Ptolemaic Hellenistic. Argead Dynasty — Ptolemaic Kingdom — Part of a series on the.

Main article: Predynastic Egypt. Main article: Early Dynastic Period Egypt. Main article: Old Kingdom of Egypt. Main article: First Intermediate Period of Egypt.

Main article: Middle Kingdom of Egypt. Main article: Second Intermediate Period of Egypt. Main article: New Kingdom of Egypt.

Main article: Third Intermediate Period of Egypt. Main article: Egypt Roman province. Main article: Ancient Egyptian agriculture. See also: Ancient Egyptian cuisine and Gardens of ancient Egypt.

Further information: Mining industry of Egypt. Main article: Ancient Egyptian trade. Main article: Egyptian language.

Main article: Ancient Egyptian literature. Main article: Ancient Egyptian cuisine. Main article: Ancient Egyptian architecture.

Main article: Art of ancient Egypt. Main article: Ancient Egyptian religion. Main article: Ancient Egyptian burial customs.

Main article: Military of ancient Egypt. Main article: Ancient Egyptian technology. Main article: Ancient Egyptian medicine.

Discuss February Main article: Egyptian mathematics. Main article: Population history of Egypt. Further information: Ancient Egyptian race controversy.

See also: Egyptian Revival architecture and Tourism in Egypt. Clayton , p. The use of quotation marks in association with the term "Sea Peoples" in our title is intended to draw attention to the problematic nature of this commonly used term.

It is noteworthy that the designation "of the sea" appears only in relation to the Sherden, Shekelesh, and Eqwesh.

Subsequently, this term was applied somewhat indiscriminately to several additional ethnonyms, including the Philistines, who are portrayed in their earliest appearance as invaders from the north during the reigns of Merenptah and Ramesses III.

Yet in the inscriptions themselves such a migration nowhere appears. After reviewing what the Egyptian texts have to say about 'the sea peoples', one Egyptologist Wolfgang Helck recently remarked that although some things are unclear, "eins ist aber sicher: Nach den agyptischen Texten haben wir es nicht mit einer 'Volkerwanderung' zu tun.

The airline is based in Cairo International Airport and is owned by the government. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For the ancient civilization, see Ancient Egypt. Egyptian Arabic is the national spoken language. Other dialects and minority languages are used regionally.

Main article: Egyptian revolution. Daily Mail. Retrieved 18 December Retrieved 20 February Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Among the peoples of the ancient Near East, only the Egyptians have stayed where they were and remained what they were, although they have changed their language once and their religion twice.

In a sense, they constitute the world's oldest nation. For most of their history, Egypt has been a state, but only in recent years has it been truly a nation-state, with a government claiming the allegiance of its subjects on the basis of a common identity.

Ibrahim of Egypt. Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics. Retrieved 27 April Census compared with Census" PDF.

Retrieved 15 April The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 5 March Egypt State Information Service. The Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces shall represent it internally and externally.

Human Geography: People, Place, and Culture 8th ed. Retrieved Countries and territories of Africa. Territories and dependencies.

States with limited recognition. Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Somaliland. Middle East. Greater Middle East.

Hidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from September Namespaces Page Talk.

Views Read Change Change source View history. Wikimedia Commons. Flag Coat of arms. In , the national handball team achieved its best result in the tournament by reaching fourth place.

Among all African nations, the Egypt national basketball team holds the record for best performance at the Basketball World Cup and at the Summer Olympics.

Egypt has taken part in the Summer Olympic Games since and hosted and Alexandria h the first Mediterranean Games in Egypt has hosted several international competitions.

On Friday 19 September , Guinness World Records announced that Egyptian scuba diver Ahmed Gabr is the new title holder for deepest salt water scuba dive , at The hour feat took Gabr 1, feet metres down into the abyss near the Egyptian town of Dahab in the Red Sea , where he works as a diving instructor.

On 1 September Raneem El Weleily was ranked as the world number one woman squash player. The wired and wireless telecommunication industry in Egypt started in with the launch of the country's first telegram line connecting Cairo and Alexandria.

The first telephone line between the two cities was installed in Egypt Post is the company responsible for postal service in Egypt.

Established in , it is one of the oldest governmental institutions in the country. Egypt is one of 21 countries that contributed to the establishment of the Universal Postal Union , initially named the General Postal Union, as signatory of the Treaty of Bern.

In September , Egypt ratified the law granting authorities the right to monitor social media users in the country as part of tightening internet controls.

The illiteracy rate has decreased since from A European-style education system was first introduced in Egypt by the Ottomans in the early 19th century to nurture a class of loyal bureaucrats and army officers.

In the s, President Nasser phased in free education for all Egyptians. Basic education, which includes six years of primary and three years of preparatory school, is a right for Egyptian children from the age of six.

General secondary education prepares students for further education, and graduates of this track normally join higher education institutes based on the results of the Thanaweya Amma , the leaving exam.

Technical secondary education has two strands, one lasting three years and a more advanced education lasting five.

Graduates of these schools may have access to higher education based on their results on the final exam, but this is generally uncommon.

Egyptian life expectancy at birth was Egypt spends 3. In , there were As a result of modernisation efforts over the years, Egypt's healthcare system has made great strides forward.

Life expectancy increased from According to the World Health Organization in , an estimated In the law was amended to impose tougher penalties on those convicted of performing the procedure, pegging the highest jail term at 15 years.

Those who escort victims to the procedure can also face jail terms up to 3 years. The total number of Egyptians with health insurance reached 37 million in , of which 11 million are minors, providing an insurance coverage of approximately 52 percent of Egypt's population.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Egypt disambiguation. Country spanning Northern Africa and Western Asia.

Other dialects and minority languages are spoken regionally. In a sense, they constitute the world's oldest nation". It is reflected in early Greek Linear B tablets as "a-ku-pi-ti-yo".

The ancient Egyptian name of the country was. Main article: History of Egypt. Main articles: Prehistoric Egypt and Ancient Egypt.

Main articles: Ptolemaic Kingdom and Egypt Roman province. Main article: Egypt in the Middle Ages. Main article: Egypt Eyalet. Main article: History of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty.

Main article: Khedivate of Egypt. Main article: Sultanate of Egypt. Main article: Kingdom of Egypt. Main article: History of the Republic of Egypt.

Main article: Egyptian revolution of Main article: Geography of Egypt. Main article: Climate of Egypt. Main article: Wildlife of Egypt.

Main article: Politics of Egypt. Main article: Egyptian Civil Code. Main article: Human rights in Egypt. Main articles: Governorates of Egypt and Subdivisions of Egypt.

Governorates of Egypt. Matrouh 2. Alexandria 3. Beheira 4. Kafr El Sheikh 5. Dakahlia 6. Damietta 7. Port Said 8. North Sinai 9. Gharbia Monufia Qalyubia Sharqia Ismailia Giza Faiyum Cairo Suez South Sinai Beni Suef Minya New Valley Asyut Red Sea Sohag Qena Luxor Main article: Economy of Egypt.

Main article: Tourism in Egypt. Main article: Energy in Egypt. Main article: Transport in Egypt. Main article: Suez Canal. Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Egypt.

Main articles: Demographics of Egypt and Egyptians. Main article: Languages of Egypt. Main article: Religion in Egypt.

See also: List of cities and towns in Egypt. Largest cities or towns in Egypt census. Main article: Culture of Egypt.

Main article: Egyptian literature. Main article: Media of Egypt. Main article: Cinema of Egypt. Main article: Music of Egypt.

Main article: List of museums in Egypt. Main article: Egyptian cuisine. Main article: Telecommunications in Egypt. Main article: Egypt Post.

Main article: Education in Egypt. Main article: Health in Egypt. Egypt portal. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Archived from the original on 6 September Retrieved 20 June Among the peoples of the ancient Near East, only the Egyptians have stayed where they were and remained what they were, although they have changed their language once and their religion twice.

In a sense, they constitute the world's oldest nation. For most of their history, Egypt has been a state, but only in recent years has it been truly a nation-state, with a government claiming the allegiance of its subjects on the basis of a common identity.

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